The Hand-made radioactive monitor.
First of all for ours semireligious ecstasy the source of radiation is required. In our case it is possible to manage old glass "fluorescent" figures which very often occupy grandmother sideboards.. They have provided me with one of harmless isotopes of radium which generously enough added in similar toys. To differ a radioactive toy from luminescent it is possible without counter geiger tube: to examinee is enough to place a subject in a dark place for the night. Present luminophor which contains in more modern hand-made articles, it ceases to be shone in 3-7 hours then it is necessary "be to recharging" on light. As any radiation here also does not smell. Radium it will be shone fifty more years. To fill panic horror before radiation it is not necessary, in fact it is an alpha-radiation, that is so weak, that it is completely shielded by a glass door of the same sideboard or a cover of hours.
Let's consider, that there is some radiation we have extracted, not violating the law, now we shall pass to the second part. It is necessary to steal traffic signs!
|Excellent, obviously new sign. Headlights of the car shine it approximately|
from the fifty meters, however even the absent-minded radiation "blinds" objective.
|The assistant climbs on a column to bite off with garden scissors a|
piece of a sign. I try to avoid a criminal acts ;).
Usually guide signs cover with a white "reflecting" paint which actually is short-time luminophor, instead of "reflector". The principle of effect of luminisceition is simple enough: quantums of light or radiation are absorbed by substance, light energy is more exact lifts electrons on more high-energy orbital than atoms (I intentionally simplify the description of process as it us not too interests). In overwhelming majority of cases of energy of quantums of light does not suffice for "pumping"
In turn luminophor consist of substances with properties suitable us, that is can keep elektron in the maximum orbit some time that allows them to accumulate light energy, and then gradually to radiate it, independently being shone. To achieve a long and bright luminescence it is necessary to prepare luminophor whith the account of the certain severe constraints. For example it is possible to prepare from ZnO with cleanliness for a maximum in 0,01 percent of impurity, and alloying additives in the form of salts of silver, manganese or gold should be added in precisely measured microscopic volumes, and even exact observance of proportions and cleanliness does not guarantee comprehensible result as the prepared mix needs to be maintained in strictly set temperature range in 700-750 degrees in current of several hours!
As you can see, it is crystal a fair way of manufacture in house conditions unrealizable, therefore we and come back to traffic signs. The luminophor paint which trace arrows and letters, is "short-time", that is why inexpensive. Time of afterglow is measured by the 100-th shares of second but we can see, how is bright this paint "reflects" light of headlights at night. However the one who though for a moment a sign with a principle of work of pumping in the most simple lasers, easily will understand, where I now drive.
To increase time of afterglow luminophor it is very difficult, but in fact while headlights of the car shine a sign, reflected light pleases a look of the motorist. We shall replace constant visible radiation of headlights by an invisible range which will constantly recharge ours luminophor. At once on mind comes thermal, that is infra-red radiation, but luminophors have one unpleasant property: they give out a luminescence with greater length of a wave, than "initial" light. We need more rigid radiation for this reason it is necessary to plunder sideboards of close relatives.
Radium gives out, certainly, not quantum gamma-radiation, but radiated heavy alpha particles at collision with frequent enough impurity heavy atoms in luminophor allocate enough energy. If to mix ours semiluminophor and radium salt we shall receive a light source with internal pumping!
And how many it would be required to energy for a heater as pumping if nevertheless to try to take advantage of an infra-red spectrum - this way is absolutely irrational!
The paint needs to be removed from a guide sign accurately a flint-paper, trying not scrape down a metal basis of a sign. From a plastic basis it is possible to extend easily salts of radium any acid (though hydrochloric or vinegar) while it is necessary to tinker with glass: not only that it is necessary beat small glass to a condition of a dust so also oxid of silicon from which has flown down actually and consists, will necessarily get in resulta mix in the form of an impurity and will detain the most part of radiation. In my opinion, plastic is easy for grating even.
If available there are only glass figures it is possible to try to find HF or H3PO4 acids. The first quickly enough "corrodes" glass, and we as a result receive fluoride radium. H3PO4 acid "corrodes" glass very slowly. The problem with a fluoric acid consists that is rather aggressive thing, besides it would be necessary to use plastic utensils, and in general well to have practical experience even in analytical chemistry - to count it is necessary much more. H3PO4 acid not so is dangerous, therefore does not demand special knowledge, but as well as fluoric it is problematic to get.
|36 % HCL even in short distance to smell it would not be desirable,|
therefore for the beginning I shall dilute it.
|Now we pour out a solution of an acid in a flask with a former|
ornament grandmother's a sideboard and......
|We are hidden behind all conceivable means of an individual defence.|
Hands to protect unessentially as solution of a hydrochloric acid it to
damage it is serious cannot (in general 10 % HCl contains even in a
stomach of the person), but eyes to protect it is necessary. The figure
contained metal inserts In my case - reaction was rough.
|At addition of water are appreciable fine bubbles - not all was evaporated|
, though I am be caful, being afraid of that my thick-walled melting spot
will not sustain uncontrollable temperature of a flame. It is better to wash
out once again, than to lose result of two-hour fuss
| Here for the sake of what we have spoiled a figure and hours.|
Somewhere in these salts salts of radium contain. The nobility
their concentration is not present necessity - cleanliness of
reactants us interests a little
Received salt-evaporation it is dissolved in warm water and it is mixed with the scratched out paint-luminophor. The insoluble deposit which it is necessary mix that the solution with salts has got even during the fineest times of a deposit-luminopfor. After that the solution is again evaporated, and now special security measures be not required. The received white weight we crumble, pounding a mix in a dust. To save time for this procedure it is not necessary: uniformity of a luminescence will depend on it.
|Usual candle without dyes we crumble and it is got rid of a match.|
Our experiment and so it is more similar to voodoo, than on
modern experience with pure reactants.
|The copper wire from a power cable easily forms convenient capture.|
| We are meelting paraffin also is lead up to boiling then we reduce fire.|
On slow fire of an impurity of water will evaporate, and "dust" either will
settle, or will emerge. We cool and is cut off the top and bottom parts
of the fallen asleep form with impurity. Than this procedure will be
more repeated , than more purely and more uniform there will be
Now it is possible to take care of knitting substance. Usually in its quality paraffin, but after you will stir our mix in the fused paraffin acts, try to smear the received briquette on as much as possible big surface - the area of a covering will turn out minimal. Though a pencil from such paraffin - an excellent thing. For a uniform covering shone structure of greater surfaces it is more convenient to transform our powder into a paint for what it needs to be poured out ruthlessly in bank with white gouache.
|In boiling pure paraffin it is thrown preliminary pounded mix of|
luminophor and salts of radium and it is well stirred. If paraffin
will have time to thicken, it is necessary to warm up it is
temperature of fusion and even boiling of paraffin in times
less "problem" for luminophor temperatures.
| Now we pour out a suspension of luminophor in paraffin|
on a leaf of a paper. It is possible simply to llow to cool
down to paraffin in the form of then to use it as a pencil.
Now it is possible to work. With porous structure it is necessary to cover any white leaf of a whatman paper in pair layers of our paint or to rub with a piece of paraffin with luminophor, to collect pair tens such sheets and to paste over with them a ceiling. Luminescences of this design should suffice you for 20-30 years so in dark corners it is possible to forget about night nightmares and monsters. Intensity of radiation is very small in two senses: both in a visible range, and from the point of view of radiating safety.
| In the afternoon painted by luminophor the paper will look as usual, and very accurate and the luminescence will be appreciable only during dark time of day though it will be enough that it is easy to distinguish subjects in a room and even to read.|
To ornament a ceiling green divorces is easily . It crowds of idlers of school age have a good time. But I would be not I if has stopped on banal botched work and have not tried to expose once again unreasonable greed and laziness of manufacturers of computer technics. This time we shall be convinced, that expenditure of Japanese for development of thin flexible liquid crystal panels are a deceit and inflating of funds.
Researchers received from domestic and Korean corporations very considerable grants on development flexible tft screens - the total sum by the year 2002 has reached year astronomical sum in 25 billion yens that makes 220 million US dollars.
Apparently any serious shifts for last three years it is not observed. For certain ten more billions Japanese money it has been spent for useless researches when to me was two weeks and the sum equivalent to a mug of good beer enough. It is simple to guess, that solubility salt also gel it is required that small dissociation allowed to provide a weak current at presence of a potential difference. In my case the problem is facilitated by that chlorides of the majority of metals in itself are higroscopic so even despite of paraffin dissociation will take place (usual candle paraffin is not a mix of pure limiting paraffins, and contains not only a moisture, but also a heap of impurity in the form of aldehydes or even hydrocarbons with double communications - all this allows to keep in substance up to 0.5% a moisture).
The first experience with a piece of whatman paper, a battery and pair wires has shown, that brightness of a luminescence slightly increases. To increase quantity of a moisture in "paint" I has added a few table salt and sugar in fusion paraffin. Chloride of sodium will increase conductivity due to increase in ions, and sugar differs tremendous hygroscopicity: try to leave a sugar bowl opened - crystals will be blocked , and in a week can turn in general in glassy substance. Now the luminescence is perfectly appreciable even at electric illumination.
| The luminescence is appreciable even at electric illumination, though still insufficiently bright. It is one of intermediate experiences when in paraffin powdered sugar has not been added.|
Further - a trick. I rule a whatman paper, I drip in cells on a drop of paraffin with luminopfor, I bring to everyone pair wires by a principle of light-emitting diode panels, and then a plait of conclusions I bring to the elementary controller. The majority of controllers use a working pressure within the limits of from 1,5 up to 5 Volt that for eyes suffices our child. As a result we receive the monitor-indicator with the cheap sanction which it is possible blunge, to twist, to connect to the electricity it is direct from the controller and in general to collect for pair hours.
Porosity of a whatman paper allows to lead some cosmetic changes. For example I dug in cells in a warm oven that paraffin has quickly impregnated a whatman paper through: it has allowed to bring wires to one party of a leaf, and to observe a luminescence with another - small editing has allowed to make the convenient indicator.
However even horrifying sizes dpi are difficult for naming lack - such papers it is possible to make greater display panels of several. It is possible to consider as unique serious lack only monocromatic though still more recently monochrome Palm's were popular. Complexity of creation of color panels consists that it is necessary to tinker with controllers and their programming (it is required on one on each of components R, G and B), and also in search of alloying impurity which will give necessary dark blue and rad shades of a luminescence. For example to find salts of cobalt, cadmium or osmium in ours through the antiterrorist world in tens times it became more complex, than any five years ago. The miracle of sir Sinclair differs simplicity and ease of programming. Management of the self-made symbolical table, the soldering of conclusions and connection to the trunk of data - two days. On "monitor" inscriptions "Z80." perfectly differ...
Finally to finish idea to the point of irrationality I used as the controller legendary monster Z80 for whom did not solder controllers only lazy. Simple programming, huge quantity of schemes and an opportunity to do taps directly from the trunk of data allow to collect "monoblock" the minimal forces. As you can see, though masterpiece it has not turned out, but now I can feel more abruptly the founder of the first Apple: I not only itself have soldered "Sinclair", but also have collected to it the monitor.
It is translated from a site www.sheppard.ru